The rate of change in position of an object (displacement) with respect to time and frame of reference. Further, the key elements of the velocity are distance and displacement. If there is no displacement in the object and it does not cover any distance, there will be no velocity. Velocity is a vector quantity because it has a vector function of displacement.
Velocity is directly proportional to displacement and inversely proportional to time. Velocity formula is given below:
Velocity = Displacement / Time
Where displacement is the change in an object’s position. (Final position – Initial position)
time is taken to cover the distance
If X1 is the initial position while X2 is the final position of the object and time taken to cover this distance is t then velocity will be:
Velocity = (Final position – Initial position) / Time
v = (X2 – X1)/ t
v = △x/△t
Other formulas of velocity are:
Angular velocity, ω = θ/t
Average velocity, v = △x/△t
Linear velocity, v = s/t
Escape velocity, v= √2GM/r, where G is gravitational constant equal to 6.674 ×10-11Nm2/kg2
SI units of velocity are meter per second ( ms-1 ) and its dimensions are [ LT-1]
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Speed vs Velocity
|Definition||Speed is the rate at which a distance is covered by the object||Velocity is the rate of change of displacement|
|Physical quantity||Scalar quantity||Vector quantity|
|Describes||Tells distance without any direction||Describes distance with proper direction|
|Value||Speed of any moving object cannot be negative or zero||Velocity of a moving object may be equal to zero|
A bullet train has covered a distance of about 1Km in 1 hour. Calculate its velocity
Distance covered = 1Km = 100 meters
Time = 1hr = 3600s
Velocity (v) = ?
v = s/t
= 0.28 ms-1
So the velocity of a bullet train is about 0.28 meters per second.
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